This number of newly comissioned essays by way of foreign members bargains a consultant evaluate of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

•Presents controversies in philosophical implications and functions of formal symbolic common sense.

•Surveys significant traits and gives unique insights.

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**Additional resources for A Companion to Philosophical Logic**

**Example text**

The failure of transitivity in the above inferences can then be accounted for by observing that a shift in supposition occurs in the premises: in one the supposition of man is formal whereas in the other it is simple, and so the inference is barred. The theory of consequence in medieval logic, of course, treats of the Aristotelian theory of the syllogism, that is the theory of inference among categorical judgments. Such judgments have the S is P form, but they are not just simple predications such as [Sortes is (a) man].

The History and Philosophy of Logic, The Journal of Philosophical Logic, and The Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic also publish articles on medieval logic. 34 3 The Rise of Modern Logic RO L F G E O RG E A N D JA M E S VA N E V R A The history of some sciences can be represented as a single progression, with each dominant theory coming to the fore, then eventually falling, replaced by another in succession through the centuries. The development of physics, for instance, can be understood as such a chain, connecting Newton in the seventeenth century with Einstein in the twentieth.

William of Ockham’s Summa Logicae has been partly rendered into English: part I (tr. M. Loux) and part II (tr. A. Freddoso and H. Schurmann) (Notre Dame University Press, 1974, 1980). Furthermore, the series Philosophisches Bibliothek, published by Felix Meiner Verlag, (Hamburg, contains many bilingual (Latin/German) editions, with introductions and careful annotations, of important works in medieval logic. The Routledge series Topics in Medieval Philosophy contains volumes of interest for the general philosopher: Ivan Boh, Epistemic Logic in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1993) is particularly interesting on the epistemological aspects of the theory of consequences, while A.