Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 48 by John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

By John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

Advances in Parasitology is a sequence of in-depth studies on present themes of curiosity in modern parasitology. It contains clinical reports on parasites of significant impact, reminiscent of trypanosomiasis and scabies, and extra conventional components, resembling zoology, taxonomy, and lifestyles historical past, which form present pondering and purposes.

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G. R. A. J. SCHOFIELDAND W. g. , 1999a). Thus, the divergence times of approximately 300 mybp, proposed by Haag et al. 85% substitutions per 100 million years derived from ribosomal RNA analysis of metazoans (Escalante and Ayala, 1995), and of 340 mybp proposed by Fernandes et al. (1993) for the trypanosome and Leishmania lineages, are questionable. Nevertheless, within a given taxonomic group and well defined categories of genetic marker, the concept of a molecular 'clock' may be usefully employed for dating species divergence.

Rangeli and T. cruzi, probably within South America. These findings suggest that T. rangeli should be placed within the stercorarian subgenus Schizotrypanum, although it must be acknowledged that the whole basis for subgeneric classification within the Stercoraria section requires complete revision. 6. 1. Subgenus Classification The findings of molecular phylogenetic studies have begun to cast doubts on the evolutionary validity of some existing trypanosome taxonomy. In particular, within the Stercoraria, the integrity of the subgenera Schizotrypanum, Herpetosoma and Megatrypanum is now under question.

The floral province of Beringia is situated between 60°N and 70°N and is the most probable route for the migration of Leishmania from the Neotropics to the Old World. Since the Old World Leishmania consist of one or at most two clades the passage across Beringia must have been a rare and difficult event. The last time that Beringia would have been warm enough lor phlebotomine sandflies was probably in the mid-Miocene (26-13 mybp) (Wolfe, 1994a, b), which is probably the latest date at which Leishmania could have migrated to the Old World.

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