Annuaire Européen / European Year Book: Publié Sous Les by Rt. Hon. Michael Stewart P.C., M.P. (auth.), Prof. B.

By Rt. Hon. Michael Stewart P.C., M.P. (auth.), Prof. B. Landheer (eds.)

The Treaty of Rome makes no point out of the Mediterranean basin as such, inc1udes now not a unmarried provision for the defining of particular kin with that quarter as an entire. There are just, as a hang-over from the French and Italian colonialist previous, sure Dec1arations, within the Appendices, regard­ ing a potential organization of Tunis, Morocco, Libya with the recent below­ taking. And, in fact, there's Artic1e 113 prescribing, on the finish of the Community's transition interval, the typical exchange coverage - plus the Artic1e (238) giving blanket authorisation for organization agreements. those criminal prescriptions have been duly carried out within the organization Agreements with Greece (1961) and Turkey (1963) and feature provided the foundation for bilateral tools in appreciate of alternative Mediterranean lands - advert hoc, pragmatic ar­ rangements. within the conditions the neighborhood might scarcely have proceeded another way. but the outlines of a eu financial coverage in regards to the nations of the Mediterranean basin have been there from the start -limited, even if, through the years via the inner improvement of the neighborhood itself. One is reminded during this connection of sundry invoca­ tions through eu and Mediterranean personalities and contributors of the eu fee - and, in particular, of a Memorandum provided via Italy to the Council of Ministers in 1964.

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Dans cette periode, il est apparu de plus en plus dairement que l'immigration avait perdu son aspect conjoncturel pour devenir un element structurel de notre systeme economique actuel. La place traditionnelle de l'Italie comme "reservoir de maind'oeuvre" etait prise par l'Espagne, la Turquie, la Yougoslavie, le Maghreb. S'il est vrai que les pays d'origine profitent de l'apport en devises de leurs travailleurs migrants (apport que pour certains pays mediterraneens peut depasser les recettes commerciales) et obtiennent une certaine detente sur le marche de l'emploi par la reduction du chömage, i1 est aussi vrai que ces regions perdent les elements les plus jeunes et les plus dynamiques en determinant un vieillissement de la population et, par la, une diminution des capacites de production.

Seules les exploitations de caractere intensif et donc essentiellement des cultures horticoles, arboricoles ou viticoles, et la transformation de leurs produits, sont capables d'apporter les emplois et les revenus necessaires aces masses rurales, dans la mesure Oll il est impossible de leur proeurer par ailleurs suffisamment d' emplois. Mais quelle region du monde pourrait-elle autre que la Communaute Europeenne, deja actuellement et de tres loin le principal marche de ces pays Oll elle trouve 80% de son approvisionnement exterieur pour ces produits, assurer un debouche important pour ces denrees perissables et qui supportent mal de longs voyages.

Borg Olivier, leader conservateur dont le nom demeure lie a I'acces de l'lle a l'independance. Le succes de la negociation n'empechait toutefois pas quelques mois apres la victoire de Dom Mintoff. Les Six, par contre, voyaient dans l'association avec ce petit pays du Commonwealth un interet strategique: un virement de Malte du cote sovietique aurait altere l'equilibre mediterraneen. Le cas de Chypre, qui a signe un accord d'association en 1972, n'est pas fondamentalement different du cas precedent.

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